· 40-60% reduction in HIV acquisition in circumcised heterosexual males in Africa.
· No impact on males who have sex with males has been noted.
· Reduced transmission of HPV and herpes simplex to female partners
· No impact on syphilis, gonorrhea or Chlamydia transmission
· Non-significant reductions in penile cancer, and any benefit disappears when phimosis is excluded as a condition that requires separate treatment.
· A Ugandan/Kenyan study demonstrating less pain with intercourse for circumcised versus non-circumcised males.
· Good to fair evidence that North American sexual function is unaffected.
· A preponderance of evidence that circumcision protects against male UTI development, and perhaps the strongest argument in favour of the recommendation.